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Computer Components

The 9 Major Parts of Computer Systems

Core Components

1. Motherboard: Think of it as the backbone of your computer. This large circuit board connects all the other crucial components, helping them communicate and work properly together.

2. Central Processing Unit (CPU): The brain of the computer, the CPU handles instructions, calculations and runs programs. Its speed and capabilities determine your system’s overall performance.

3. Random Access Memory (RAM): Serves as the computer’s short term memory workspace. When you load programs or files, they’re temporarily stored in RAM for quick access by the CPU. More RAM generally means better multitasking and faster reaction times from your computer.

4. Storage Devices: These house your operating system, software and personal files. They come in two main types:

  • Hard Disk Drives (HDDs): Traditional mechanical drives offering larger storage capacity.
  • Solid State Drives (SSDs): Faster and more durable, SSDs significantly improve boot up times, program loading and overall system speed.

5. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU): Crucial for visually demanding tasks. A dedicated GPU handles complex graphics rendering needed for gaming, video editing and 3D design. Many systems also have integrated GPUs built into the CPU that work fine for basic display needs.

6. Power Supply Unit (PSU): The heart of your computer’s power system, the PSU converts AC power from the outlet into the various DC voltages your computer components need. Choosing the right PSU with ample wattage is important for system stability.

Essential Peripherals

7. Input Devices:

Keyboard and Mouse: Fundamental for interacting with your computer.

Others: Touchpads, touchscreens, microphones, webcams, game controllers etc.

8. Output Devices:

Monitor: The visual display where you see the results of your computer’s work.

Others: Speakers, headphones and printers.

Network Connectivity

9. Network Interface Card (NIC): Enables your computer to connect to a network. Can be wired (Ethernet) or wireless (WiFi) and built into the motherboard.

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